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During most of the 17th century, Spanish ships were menaced by pirates, so they developed a complex system where ships with military protection were dispatched to Central America in a convoy from Seville the only port allowed to trade with the colonies, to Lima, Peru and from it to the inner cities of the viceroyalty.

Because of this, products took a very long time to arrive in Buenos Aires, and the taxes generated by the transport made them prohibitive.

A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay).

Garay preserved the name originally chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire ("City of the Most Holy Trinity and Port of Saint Mary of the Fair Winds").

During the siege of Cagliari, the Aragonese built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill.

However, Charles's placating actions did not have the desired effect, and the porteños, some of them versed in the ideology of the French Revolution, became even more convinced of the need for independence from Spain.

In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the River de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires," the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds" who was said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires.

Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds," a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian "Madonna de Bonaria" For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, who is said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land! But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives, ultimately concluded that the name was indeed closely linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre.

This article is about the capital city of Argentina. From top, left to right: panoramic view of the central business district, the Palace of the Argentine National Congress, Puente de la Mujer in Puerto Madero, tango dancers in San Telmo, Casa Rosada, the Metropolitan Cathedral, the Cabildo, the Obelisco, the Teatro Colón, La Recoleta Cemetery, the Planetario within the Palermo Woods, and Caminito in La Boca.

For the broader conurbation, see Greater Buenos Aires. is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.

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